How to take risks in your job and life – risk theory #sapiens #history #covid

Category- Science

Reading Time – 5 minutes

“All the risks your ancestors have taken from the big bang till COVID-19.”

We humans like the comfort zone. An imaginary blanket in our immediate surroundings, where we can switch off our alarms and finally consume more calories than we need.

We avoid risks at all the places at every cost. We keep cold away with heaters and clothes. We wash away majority of bacteria from our skin surface daily.

We freeze with fear when teacher asks a question, that we don’t know or our boss passes a bad look.

We avoid risks.

But you are unaware of all the risks that your father’s and forefathers took to bring you here.

Let’s examine this truth.

When you were planned there was one in three million chance, that you will be made as sperm started to dissolve wall of the egg that formed you.

Even after that sperm that made you had success, it still had 50% chance that your sex will be different.

Here a race of blind cells decided a large number of things.

Your country, your city, your religion, your culture, your staple food, your inheritable wealth and everything attached to these. Your president, your economy. It was all risk that you had to take involuntarily.

It was such a big risk that was taken to bring you to life. Then you stayed for 9 months protected inside the body of your mother.

Risk of still birth in normal pregnancy is 14 per thousand live births and risk to mother during normal birth is 0.001% ( maternal mortality rate). but you took both the risks to come to this beautiful world. Here without your knowledge.

You also survived infant period with mortality rate of 29 per 1000 live births. Thats why you are reading this article.

Then you came out and your parents don’t want to take any risk with you.

Ok let’s see a little farther back in time.

If you are born in India in 2010.

Let’s see

Your parents survived covid pandemic to be able to give birth to you. Your mom took risk of bearing a pregnancy which has a risk of but she loves you. So she undertook this risk without second thoughts.

They survived traveling on roads which has risk of dying. With 1% vehicles india account for 11% of global deaths in road traffic accidents.

They survived 2008 market crash and recession which deprived a lots of population from basic amenities.

You must remember that it is still not finalized that they will be your parents. But as we know future now as we are writing this fir this article, we know that they must survive to reach a stage when you will come.

They survive their own pregnancies and births.

Then we reach to their parents. And their parents who all survived countless risks that routine life brings about. All the risks that you undertook and many more.

It continued up all the generations. 1962 war with China. 1965 war with Pakistan. Struggle of independence. The Cuban missile crisis. The Cold war. World war one. World war two.

If any of your ancestors had suffered due to any of these,then your existence would not have been possible.

As you can see DNA that you share has been taking so many risks for so long to reach you.

Let’s see furthur back. Very long ago

Your ancestors survived plague and cholera epidemics. They survived British rule. They survived wars and famines and floods and roits that occured regularly.

They survived rule of Mughals and Maharajas. They survived invasions by foreign countries.

They survived five mass extinctions that earth has witnessed. Each wiped out almost 70% species from the face of the earth.

Yes you right. At that stage the ancestors that created your ancestors might have been a fish or tribolite or sponge. But they were necessary to carry your DNA to the year 2021. We still have 30% of our DNA matching with mushrooms.

But ancestors of your ancestors survived this risky proposition.

They survived at the floor of prehistoric seas; where volcanic activity poured minerals necessary for the first forms of life to flourish.

Then even before life has begun in the form of unicellular life; conditions had to exist for any possibility of the life.

Oxygen had to increase. Magnetic field had to form around earth. Atmosphere had to form. But all the atoms that form you took the risk to exist in the most hostile of the environments.

They fused in the stars and fissioned in nuclear activities but they travelled all the way to reach your ancestors.

Then further back. Mind-boggling pastof the universe.

Gravity and other forces of nature had to fine-tune to form galaxies and solar system and our star sun. Antimatter and matter had to settle their concentrations. A little imbalance in forces and their timings would have formed completely different universe. Or may be no universe.

Even back.

Inflation had to occur just after big bang to allow enough cooling so that atoms could form. These atoms will form everything; that you see around you along with fields that carry energies.

So any disturbance at any point along this cascade would have ultimately lead to failure of one of your ancestors to survive. And finally you.

But it happened that they took extreme risks but still survived to reach here to make you possible.

Things that make your existence possible, have always taken gigantic risks and still have survived.

Why then are you afraid of risks so much?

By further analysing these facts we can presume that unknown risks are always there.

Out of the known risks there are a few which can utterly ruin you. These are to be a avoided.

But all other risks which make up the majority of risks you have to take voluntarily, are nothing in front of all the risks and stakes that you have already survived.

What we know about sleep – till now #science #discovery

Reading time – 10 minutes

Category – science

A modern human being is obsessed about profits and bank balances and hence, easily forgets about real wealth, that a man can desire and achieve.

A healthy body with a healthy mind is the most precious thing one can achieve.

Everyday, every human on the face of the earth does a thing which is most undervalued and neglected; inspite of being a absolute healer.

Sleep is an automatic and useless thing till we are unable to sleep even after trying or time doesn’t permit for it.

In this article let’s see what is the latest scientific knowledge about sleep and how it can help us .

Every living being on earth has a circadian rythm, which is internal clock set by the Sun over the millennia.

It was shown in plants in 1729. And after two hundred years it was shown in humans too.

It decides our waking and sleeping times. It is controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus situated just above the point where both optic nerves cross each other.

It controls various rythms in body like temperature, metabolic rate, sugar levels, adrenal hormones and other vital functions.

Circadian rhythm varies in different people. Around 40% are morning type, who go to bed early and get up early in the morning.

30% are night types who sleep late and hence get up late. It includes the author of this article.

30% fall somewhere in between.

There are two main things that control sleeping habits of humans.

1. Circadian rhythm controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus. It signals release of Melantonin which is a hormone secreted by pineal gland. It signals as a starting signal to the person that dark has arrived and you should try to sleep. It is a signal but it doesn’t help in induction of the process of sleep.

2. Sleep pressure – During wakefulness adenosine accumulates in the brain neurons which creates a pressure on the person to sleep. When we sleep it is cleared and sleep pressure falls to normal

Most important thing is that these two systems work independent of each other.

Types of sleep.

Let’s now come to sleep. It is mainly of two types depending on whether your eyes move automatically in your orbits or not at a particular point while you are sleeping..

1. NREM is non REM sleep in which eyeballs show only slow rythmic movements.

2. REM – Rapid eye movement sleep – in it eyes dart fast in the orbits.

Individual pecularities of both types of sleep.

NREM has 4 stages going from light ( stage 1) to stage 4 ( very deep).

It is believed to be a phase of consolidation of new information and facts. It declutters unwanted and less useful information from the neural connections.

It dominates first half of the night.

It is main sleep after a long period of sleep deprivation.

EEG in it is slow wave.

REM sleep.

During this dreaming occurs. Muscles loose tone. Eyes dart fast. It is believed to be responsible for integration of new data with other data and old information available in brain’s neural connections.

It is hence place for creativity and innovation as it connects different fields of information which are unrelated.

It is important for brain development of infants and kids. Hence REM sleep is more in early age and reduces as we age.

Quality and quantity of sleep reduces as we age.

Factors affecting sleep.

1. Caffeine – It competes with adenosine binding sites in brain and reduces sleep pressure. It’s half life is 6-7 hours. So avoid consuming caffeine during second half of the day.

2. Alcohol – Fragments sleep and disrupts REM sleep. Restorative power of sleep falls.

3. Temperature – Fall in the core temperature of the body helps in inducing sleep. Shower helps. Cool room helps. Excercise just before sleeping disrupts this effect.

4 Jet lag – Confuses circadian rhythm.

Areas of sleep generation.

Mid frontal cortex just above nasal bridge is site of the origin of sleep. And it spreads backwards towards occipital lobe. These are the areas which are earliest to degenerate as we age.

What happens if we sleep less.

Decreased memory, retention and reproduction of the facts. Increased chances of diabetes, infections and cancers. Increased emotional liability and obesity. Increase incidence of psychiatric illness.

Increased incidence of accidents.

Do sleeping pills help.

No . They produce unnatural sleep. They have addictive potential. Rebound insomnia can occur. People taking pills have increased mortality over next two and half years.

Normal length of sleep

Generally eight hours of good quality of sleep is recommended. It follows J curve like water consumption and food intake. After 9 hours, benefits of sleep start to reduce again.

New enemy of sleep

Blue LED light reduces Melantonin secretion by 50%. It also reduces REM sleep. Hence reading a paperback is better than reading on an ipad near the bedtime.

At last what helps us to sleep

1. Stay away from caffeine, alcohol and nicotine.

2. Stick to a sleep schedule. Try to go to bed at same time and get up at same time.

3. Excercise but not close to the time of sleeping.

4. Avoid day naps after 3 pm.

5. Avoid medicines that disrupt sleep.

6. Avoid large meals near bedtime.

7. Wind down before sleeping. Do something that relaxes you.

8. Dark room. Cold room. Gadget free room. Keep the clock away. Comfortable bedding.

9. Taking Bath before sleep can help lower your body temperature.

10. Get cozy with sunlight. Get one hour sunlight exposure in morning and dark indoors in the evening.

11. Don’t stay in bed if you are not sleeping. Do some relaxing stuff like reading a paperback. And return to the bed when you feel sleepy.

Inspiration – Why we sleep by Matthew walker.

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Timelines of most dangerous species on earth – How humans evolved. #sapiens #evolution

Category – Science

Reading time – 3 minutes

Age of universe – 13.8 billion years

Age of earth – 4.5 billion years

Single cell – 3.8 billion years ago

Complex cells – 2 billion years ago

Sexual reproduction – 0.5 billion years ago

Fish moved to earth – 0.2 billion years ago

Humans – 0.03 billion years ago

Darwin theory of evolution – 1831

Mandela research on pea – 1843

Successful IVF Edward and Steptoe – 1978

Human genome project – 2003 completion

Craig ventor – 2003 fast cloning technique

Is your lifetime quota of heartbeats fixed ? kleiber,s law #innovations

Category – Science

Reading time – 2 minutes

Max kleiber was a Swiss scientist.

He researched on agricultural plants and animals. He wanted to find, effect of body size on metabolic rate of the organisms, a thing that was useful in cattle industry.

Cattle industry owners saw potential in his research, as he could predict how fat their cattle will grow and how much bounty they can get by serving them to carnivorous masses.

Working over this, he stumbled upon a pattern, which is called kleiber law.

He noticed that as organisms grow in size, they slow down.

A rat has faster beating heart; as compared to an elephant. A bull’s heart beats slower than a cat, when he munches his grass.

He applied his mathematics knowledge, to analyse it and he found that it follows, “negative quarter power scaling.”

That means something; that blasts mind of every guy, who didn’t like maths at the school.

But, we can only know that if we take mass of an organism and do its square root and do square root of result obtained again; we will get approximate idea of its metabolism. Metabolism is 3/4 th power of its mass.

That means we do sqaure root twice.

By these ratios, we can predict relative metabolism of two animal species.

For example, if we take a cow and a rat. Let’s assume if cow is x times heavier than it; then cow’s heart will beat x times slower than rat and it will live roughly x times longer.

Scientist Geoffrey west took it further, when he applied this law to non living things like cities, creativity and ideas.

It applied well to cities when we saw cable length, petrol stations, factories etc.

But when he applied it to Idea generation and innovation it was not applicable.

As size of cities increased, number of ideas generated increased exponentially.

That is why cities serve as centres of growth and innovation.

As different ideas collide; they generates new combinations.

Hence, although kleiber’s law can help in comparison of heart rates and life-span of different species, it doesn’t apply everywhere as a basic law of energy distribution in nature.

Let’s stop here. I don’t see too many fans of mathematics, who scroll on social media.

Inspiration – Where the good ideas come from Steven Johnson.

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